skip to main content

Do the various sources of energy consumption affect the environmental degradation in India?

1Faculty of Economics and Business, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Malaysia

2School of Business and Management, University of Technology Sarawak, Malaysia

3Centre on Technological Readiness and Innovation in Business Technopreneurship, Malaysia

Received: 6 Jun 2023; Revised: 27 Nov 2023; Accepted: 17 Dec 2023; Available online: 3 Jan 2024; Published: 1 Mar 2024.
Editor(s): H Hadiyanto
Open Access Copyright (c) 2024 The Author(s). Published by Centre of Biomass and Renewable Energy (CBIORE)
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Citation Format:
Abstract

India possesses ample opportunities for economic growth, resulting in a surge in electricity demand. As per the Environmental Performance Index (EPI), India's rank on environmental health and ecosystem viability stands at a lowly 168th out of 180 countries. Historically, India relied on fossil fuels for electricity generation, leading to substantial environmental degradation that have harmed the environment. In recent times, India has diversified its electricity generation sources, incorporating not only fossil fuels but also nuclear power and renewable resources. However, despite these changes, India still struggles with high CO2 emissions which indicates the level of environmental degradation. Hence, this study aims to investigate the sources of energy consumption in India: fossil fuels, renewable energy, and nuclear energy. By utilising the ARDL and NARDL methodologies, this study enriches the empirical studies by examining energy consumption trends in India from 1985 to 2021. The findings of this study shed light on whether the adoption of renewable energy and nuclear energy significantly aids in reducing carbon emissions in India, thereby facilitating the attainment of the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG), Therefore, it is of the utmost necessity for India to emphasize the formation of clean energy in their energy policy to achieve the SDG7 by the year 2030. This study found a positive correlation between GDP per capita and CO2 emissions, highlighting the urgent need to reduce India's dependency on fossil fuels. The ARDL analysis further confirms that fossil fuel-generated energy contributes to CO2 emissions, whereas nuclear-generated energy reduces them.

Fulltext View|Download
Keywords: Electricity; Energy; CO2 Emissions; Sustainable Development Goal; India
Funding: Universiti Malaysia Sarawak

Article Metrics:

  1. Abbasi, K. R., Adedoyin, F. F., Abbas, J., & Hussain, K. (2021). The impact of energy depletion and renewable energy on CO2 emissions in Thailand: fresh evidence from the novel dynamic ARDL simulation. Renewable Energy, 180, 1439-1450, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2021.08.078
  2. Adedoyin, F., Ozturk, I., Abubakar, I., Kumeka, T., Folarin, O., & Bekun, F. V. (2020). Structural breaks in CO2 emissions: are they caused by climate change protests or other factors?. Journal of environmental management, 266,110628, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2020.110628
  3. Adekoya, O. B., Ajayi, G. E., Suhrab, M., & Oliyide, J. A. (2022). How critical are resource rents, agriculture, growth, and renewable energy to environmental degradation in the resource-rich African countries? The role of institutional quality. Energy Policy, 164, 112888, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2022.112888
  4. Adekoya, O. B., Oliyide, J. A., Yaya, O. S., & Al-Faryan, M. A. S. (2022). Does oil connect differently with prominent assets during war? Analysis of intra-day data during the Russia-Ukraine saga. Resources Policy, 77,102728, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resourpol.2022.102728
  5. Ahmed, M., Shuai, C., & Ahmed, M. (2022). Influencing factors of carbon emissions and their trends in China and India: a machine learning method. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 29(32), 48424-48437, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-022-18711-3
  6. Ali, M.U., Gong, Z., Ali, M. U., Asmi, F., & Muhammad, R. (2022). CO2 emission, economic development, fossil fuel consumption and population density in India, Pakistan and Bangladesh: a panel investigation. International Journal of Finance & Economics, 27(1), 18-31, https://doi.org/10.1002/ijfe.2134
  7. Anwar, A., Sharif, A., Fatima, S., Ahmad, P., Sinha, A., Khan, S. A. R., & Jermsittiparsert, K. (2021). The asymmetric effect of public private partnership investment on transport CO2 emission in China: Evidence from quantile ARDL approach. Journal of Cleaner Production, 288,125282, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.125282
  8. Bai, J., & Ng, S. (2005). Tests for skewness, kurtosis, and normality for time series data. Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, 23(1), 49-60, https://doi.org/10.1198/073500104000000271
  9. Baldwin, M. P., & Lenton, T. M. (2020). Solving the climate crisis: Lessons from ozone depletion and COVID-19. Global sustainability, 3, e29, https://doi.org/10.1017/sus.2020.25
  10. Bandyopadhyay, A., & Rej, S. (2021). Can nuclear energy fuel an environmentally sustainable economic growth? Revisiting the EKC hypothesis for India. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 28, 63065-63086, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-15220-7
  11. Bauer, N., Mouratiadou, I., Luderer, G., Baumstark, L., Brecha, R. J., Edenhofer, O., & Kriegler, E. (2016). Global fossil energy markets and climate change mitigation–an analysis with REMIND. Climatic change, 136, 69-82, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-013-0901-6
  12. Ben Mbarek, M., Saidi, K., & Rahman, M. M. (2018). Renewable and non-renewable energy consumption, environmental degradation and economic growth in Tunisia. Quality & Quantity, 52, 1105-1119, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11135-017-0506-7
  13. Berger, E. M. (2010). The Chernobyl disaster, concern about the environment, and life satisfaction. Kyklos, 63(1),18, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6435.2010.00457.x
  14. Bisconti, A. S. (2018). Changing public attitudes toward nuclear energy. Progress in Nuclear Energy, 102, 103-113, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pnucene.2017.07.002
  15. Brodeur, A., Gray, D., Islam, A., & Bhuiyan, S. (2021). A literature review of the economics of COVID‐19. Journal of Economic Surveys, 35(4), 1007-1044, https://doi.org/10.1111/joes.12423
  16. Caglar, A. E. (2020). The importance of renewable energy consumption and FDI inflows in reducing environmental degradation: bootstrap ARDL bound test in selected 9 countries. Journal of Cleaner Production, 264,121663, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.121663
  17. Chen, C., Lu, Y., & He, G. (2022). Driving mechanisms for decoupling CO2 emissions from economic development in the ten largest emission countries. Ecosystem Health and Sustainability, 8(1), 2059016, https://doi.org/10.1080/20964129.2022.2059016
  18. Coakley, J., & Fuertes, A. M. (1997). New panel unit root tests of PPP. Economics Letters, 57(1),17-22, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0165-1765(97)81874-5
  19. Covert, T., Greenstone, M., & Knittel, C. R. (2016). Will we ever stop using fossil fuels?. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 30(1), 117-138, https://doi.org/10.1257/jep.30.1.117
  20. Danish., Ozcan, B., & Ulucak, R. (2021). An empirical investigation of nuclear energy consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission in India: Bridging IPAT and EKC hypotheses. Nuclear Engineering and Technology, 53(6),2056-2065, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.net.2020.12.008
  21. Das, J., Manikanta, V., & Umamahesh, N. V. (2022). Population exposure to compound extreme events in India under different emission and population scenarios. Science of The Total Environment, 806,150424, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.150424
  22. Das, N., Murshed, M., Rej, S., Bandyopadhyay, A., Hossain, M. E., Mahmood, H., ... & Bera, P. (2023). Can clean energy adoption and international trade contribute to the achievement of India’s 2070 carbon neutrality agenda? Evidence using quantile ARDL measures. International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology, 30(3),262-277, https://doi.org/10.1080/13504509.2022.2139780
  23. Ehsanullah, S., Tran, Q. H., Sadiq, M., Bashir, S., Mohsin, M., & Iram, R. (2021). How energy insecurity leads to energy poverty? Do environmental consideration and climate change concerns matters. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 28(39), 55041-55052, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-14415-2
  24. EPI. (2021). Environmental Performance Index. https://epi.yale.edu/. Accessed on 1 April 2023
  25. Estrada, M. A. R., Park, D., Tahir, M., & Khan, A. (2020). Simulations of US-Iran war and its impact on global oil price behavior. Borsa Istanbul Review, 20(1),1-12, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bir.2019.11.002
  26. Ghosh, S., & Kanjilal, K. (2020). Non-fossil fuel energy usage and economic growth in India: A study on non-linear cointegration, asymmetry and causality. Journal of Cleaner Production, 273, 123032, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.123032
  27. Gibba, A., & Khan, M. K. (2023). Modelling the causal dynamics among energy consumption, economic growth and oil import prices: a panel co-integration analysis for EU economies. Frontiers in Environmental Economics, 2,4. https://doi.org/10.3389/frevc.2023.1114175
  28. Guo, H., Chang, Z., Wu, J., & Li, W. (2019). Air pollution and lung cancer incidence in China: Who are faced with a greater effect?. Environment international, 132,105077, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2019.105077
  29. Guo, J., Zhou, Y., Ali, S., Shahzad, U., & Cui, L. (2021). Exploring the role of green innovation and investment in energy for environmental quality: An empirical appraisal from provincial data of China. Journal of Environmental Management, 292, 112779, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.112779
  30. Gussmann, G., & Hinkel, J. (2021). A framework for assessing the potential effectiveness of adaptation policies: Coastal risks and sea-level rise in the Maldives. Environmental Science & Policy, 115, 35-42, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2020.09.028
  31. Hassan, S. T., Baloch, M. A., & Tarar, Z. H. (2020). Is nuclear energy a better alternative for mitigating CO2 emissions in BRICS countries? An empirical analysis. Nuclear Engineering and Technology, 52(12), 2969-2974, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.net.2020.05.016
  32. Hassler, U., & Wolters, J. (2006). Autoregressive distributed lag models and cointegration (pp. 57-72). Springer Berlin Heidelberg, https://doi.org/10.1007/3-540-32693-6_5
  33. He, F., Chang, K. C., Li, M., Li, X., & Li, F. (2020). Bootstrap ARDL test on the relationship among trade, FDI, and CO2 emissions: Based on the experience of BRICS countries. Sustainability, 12(3), 1060, https://doi.org/10.3390/su12031060
  34. Hossain, M. S., Fang, Y. R., Ma, T., Huang, C., Peng, W., Urpelainen, J., ... & Dai, H. (2023). Narrowing fossil fuel consumption in the Indian road transport sector towards reaching carbon neutrality. Energy Policy, 172, 113330, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2022.113330
  35. IEA (2023). International Energy Agency. India energy Outlook 2021. World Energy Outlook Special Report. https://www.iea.org/reports/india-energy-outlook-2021. Accessed on 1 April 2023
  36. Jackson, R. B., Friedlingstein, P., Andrew, R. M., Canadell, J. G., Le Quéré, C., & Peters, G. P. (2019). Persistent fossil fuel growth threatens the Paris Agreement and planetary health. Environmental Research Letters, 14(12), 121001, https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/ab57b3
  37. Jayanthakumaran, K., Verma, R., & Liu, Y. (2012). CO2 emissions, energy consumption, trade and income: a comparative analysis of China and India. Energy Policy, 42, 450-460, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2011.12.010
  38. Jiang, K., Yu, H., Chen, L., Fang, M., Azzi, M., Cottrell, A., & Li, K. (2020). An advanced, ammonia-based combined NOx/SOx/CO2 emission control process towards a low-cost, clean coal technology. Applied Energy, 260,114316, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2019.114316
  39. Jie, D., Xu, X., & Guo, F. (2021). The future of coal supply in China based on non-fossil energy development and carbon price strategies. Energy, 220,119644, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2020.119644
  40. Johansen, S. (1991). Estimation and hypothesis testing of cointegration vectors in Gaussian vector autoregressive models. Econometrica: journal of the Econometric Society, 1551-1580, https://doi.org/10.2307/2938278
  41. Joy, A., & Qureshi, A. (2023). Reducing mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants in India: Possibilities and challenges. Ambio, 52(1),242-252, https://doi.org/10.1007/s13280-022-01773-5
  42. Kanitkar, T. (2020). The COVID-19 lockdown in India: Impacts on the economy and the power sector. Global transitions, 2, 150-156, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.glt.2020.07.005
  43. Kartal, M. T. (2022). The role of consumption of energy, fossil sources, nuclear energy, and renewable energy on environmental degradation in top-five carbon producing countries. Renewable Energy, 184,871-880, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2021.12.022
  44. Kartal, M. T., Pata, U. K., Depren, S. K., & Depren, Ö. (2023). Effects of possible changes in natural gas, nuclear, and coal energy consumption on CO2 emissions: Evidence from France under Russia’s gas supply cuts by dynamic ARDL simulations approach. Applied Energy, 339, 120983, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2023.120983
  45. Kopas, J., York, E., Jin, X., Harish, S. P., Kennedy, R., Shen, S. V., & Urpelainen, J. (2020). Environmental justice in India: incidence of air pollution from coal-fired power plants. Ecological Economics, 176, 106711, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2020.106711
  46. Kozak, M. (2009). What is strong correlation?. Teaching Statistics, 31(3), 85-86, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9639.2009.00387.x
  47. Kumar C. R, J & Majid, M. A. (2020). Renewable energy for sustainable development in India: current status, future prospects, challenges, employment, and investment opportunities. Energy, Sustainability and Society, 10(1), 1-36, https://doi.org/10.1186/s13705-019-0232-1
  48. Lau, L. S., Choong, C. K., Ng, C. F., Liew, F. M., & Ching, S. L. (2019). Is nuclear energy clean? Revisit of Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis in OECD countries. Economic Modelling, 77, 12-20, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.econmod.2018.09.015
  49. Lenzen, M. (2008). Life cycle energy and greenhouse gas emissions of nuclear energy: A review. Energy conversion and management, 49(8), 2178-2199, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2008.01.033
  50. Lin, B., & Xu, B. (2020). How does fossil energy abundance affect China's economic growth and CO2 emissions?. Science of the Total Environment, 719, 137503, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.137503
  51. Ludovici, G. M., de Souza, S. O., Chierici, A., Cascone, M. G., d’Errico, F., & Malizia, A. (2020). Adaptation to ionizing radiation of higher plants: From environmental radioactivity to chernobyl disaster. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 222, 106375, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2020.106375
  52. Maddala, G. S., & Wu, S. (1999). A comparative study of unit root tests with panel data and a new simple test. Oxford Bulletin of Economics and statistics, 61(S1), 631-652, https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-0084.0610s1631
  53. Magazzino, C., Mele, M., & Schneider, N. (2021). A machine learning approach on the relationship among solar and wind energy production, coal consumption, GDP, and CO2 emissions. Renewable Energy, 167, 99-115, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2020.11.050
  54. Martins, F., Felgueiras, C., & Smitková, M. (2018). Fossil fuel energy consumption in European countries. Energy Procedia, 153, 107-111, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2018.10.050
  55. Martins, F., Felgueiras, C., Smitkova, M., & Caetano, N. (2019). Analysis of fossil fuel energy consumption and environmental impacts in European countries. Energies, 12(6), 964, https://doi.org/10.3390/en12060964
  56. Mbah, R. E., & Wasum, D. F. (2022). Russian-Ukraine 2022 War: A review of the economic impact of Russian-Ukraine crisis on the USA, UK, Canada, and Europe. Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal, 9(3), 144-153, http://doi.org/10.14738/assrj.93.12005
  57. Mohamad, A. H. H., Zainuddin, M. R. K., & Ab-Rahim, R. (2023). Does Renewable Energy Transition in the USA and China Overcome Environmental Degradation?. International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, 13(6), 234-243, https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.14840
  58. Mohammad, P., & Goswami, A. (2019). Temperature and precipitation trend over 139 major Indian cities: An assessment over a century. Modeling Earth Systems and Environment, 5, 1481-1493, https://doi.org/10.1007/s40808-019-00642-7
  59. Mujtaba, A., & Jena, P. K. (2021). Analyzing asymmetric impact of economic growth, energy use, FDI inflows, and oil prices on CO 2 emissions through NARDL approach. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 28, 30873-30886, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-12660-z
  60. Ntanos, S., Skordoulis, M., Kyriakopoulos, G., Arabatzis, G., Chalikias, M., Galatsidas, S., ... & Katsarou, A. (2018). Renewable energy and economic growth: Evidence from European countries. Sustainability, 10(8),2626, https://doi.org/10.3390/su10082626
  61. Orcan, F. (2020). Parametric or non-parametric: Skewness to test normality for mean comparison. International Journal of Assessment Tools in Education, 7(2), 255-265. https://doi.org/10.21449/ijate.656077
  62. Ortega-Ruiz, G., Mena-Nieto, A., Golpe, A. A., & García-Ramos, J. E. (2022). CO2 emissions and causal relationships in the six largest world emitters. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 162, 112435, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2022.112435
  63. OWiD. (2023). Our World in Data. CO2 emission data. https://ourworldindata.org/. Accessed on 1 April 2023
  64. Ozgur, O., Yilanci, V., & Kongkuah, M. (2022). Nuclear energy consumption and CO2 emissions in India: Evidence from Fourier ARDL bounds test approach. Nuclear Engineering and Technology, 54(5),1657-1663, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.net.2021.11.001
  65. Pachiyappan, D., Ansari, Y., Alam, M. S., Thoudam, P., Alagirisamy, K., & Manigandan, P. (2021). Short and long-run causal effects of CO2 emissions, energy use, GDP and population growth: evidence from India using the ARDL and VECM approaches. Energies, 14(24), 8333, https://doi.org/10.3390/en14248333
  66. Pata, U. K., & Samour, A. (2022). Do renewable and nuclear energy enhance environmental quality in France? A new EKC approach with the load capacity factor. Progress in Nuclear Energy, 149, 104249, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pnucene.2022.104249
  67. Pesaran, M. H., Shin, Y., & Smith, R. J. (2001). Bounds testing approaches to the analysis of level relationships. Journal of applied econometrics, 16(3), 289-326, https://doi.org/10.1002/jae.616
  68. Piecuch, C. G. (2020). Likely weakening of the Florida Current during the past century revealed by sea-level observations. Nature Communications, 11(1), 3973, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-17761-w
  69. Ratner, B. (2009). The correlation coefficient: Its values range between+ 1/− 1, or do they?. Journal of targeting, measurement and analysis for marketing, 17(2), 139-142, https://doi.org/10.1057/jt.2009.5
  70. Rehman, A., Ma, H., Ahmad, M., Ozturk, I., & Işık, C. (2021). Estimating the connection of information technology, foreign direct investment, trade, renewable energy and economic progress in Pakistan: evidence from ARDL approach and cointegrating regression analysis. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 28(36), 50623-50635, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-14303-9
  71. Rehman, S., & Hussain, Z. (2017). Renewable energy governance in India: challenges and prospects for achieving the 2022 energy goals. Journal of Resources, Energy and Development, 14(1), 13-22, https://doi.org/10.3233/RED-14102
  72. Roy, B., & Schaffartzik, A. (2021). Talk renewables, walk coal: The paradox of India's energy transition. Ecological Economics, 180, 106871, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2020.106871
  73. Sadatshojaie, A., & Rahimpour, M. R. (2020). CO2 emission and air pollution (volatile organic compounds, etc.)–related problems causing climate change. In Current trends and future developments on (bio-) membranes (pp.1-30).Elsevier, https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-816778-6.00001-1
  74. Sadekin, S., Zaman, S., Mahfuz, M., & Sarkar, R. (2019). Nuclear power as foundation of a clean energy future: A review. Energy Procedia, 160,513-518, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2019.02.200
  75. San-Akca, B., Sever, S. D., & Yilmaz, S. (2020). Does natural gas fuel civil war? Rethinking energy security, international relations, and fossil-fuel conflict. Energy Research & Social Science, 70, 101690, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.erss.2020.101690
  76. Sasmaz, M. U., Sakar, E., Yayla, Y. E., & Akkucuk, U. (2020). The relationship between renewable energy and human development in OECD countries: A panel data analysis. Sustainability, 12(18), 7450, https://doi.org/10.3390/su12187450
  77. Shah, S. M. H., Mustaffa, Z., Teo, F. Y., Imam, M. A. H., Yusof, K. W., & Al-Qadami, E. H. H. (2020). A review of the flood hazard and risk management in the South Asian Region, particularly Pakistan. Scientific African, 10, e00651, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sciaf.2020.e00651
  78. Shahbaz, M., Sharma, R., Sinha, A., & Jiao, Z. (2021). Analyzing nonlinear impact of economic growth drivers on CO2 emissions: Designing an SDG framework for India. Energy Policy, 148, 111965, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2020.111965
  79. Sharif, A., Mishra, S., Sinha, A., Jiao, Z., Shahbaz, M., & Afshan, S. (2020). The renewable energy consumption-environmental degradation nexus in Top-10 polluted countries: Fresh insights from quantile-on-quantile regression approach. Renewable Energy, 150, 670-690, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2019.12.149
  80. Sharma, R., & Kautish, P. (2020). Examining the nonlinear impact of coal and oil-based electricity production on CO2 emissions in India. The Electricity Journal, 33(6), 106775, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tej.2020.106775
  81. Shin, Y., Yu, B., & Greenwood-Nimmo, M. (2014). Modelling asymmetric cointegration and dynamic multipliers in a nonlinear ARDL framework. Festschrift in honor of Peter Schmidt: Econometric methods and applications, 281-314, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4899-8008-3_9
  82. Sikder, M., Wang, C., Yao, X., Huai, X., Wu, L., KwameYeboah, F., ... & Dou, X. (2022). The integrated impact of GDP growth, industrialization, energy use, and urbanization on CO2 emissions in developing countries: evidence from the panel ARDL approach. Science of the Total Environment, 837, 155795, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.155795
  83. Sreenu, N. (2022). Impact of FDI, crude oil price and economic growth on CO2 emission in India: -symmetric and asymmetric analysis through ARDL and non-linear ARDL approach. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 29(28), 42452-42465, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-022-19597-x
  84. Stokes, C. R., Abram, N. J., Bentley, M. J., Edwards, T. L., England, M. H., Foppert, A., ... & Whitehouse, P. L. (2022). Response of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet to past and future climate change. Nature, 608(7922),275-286, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-022-04946-0
  85. Uzair Ali, M., Gong, Z., Ali, M. U., Asmi, F., & Muhammad, R. (2022). CO2 emission, economic development, fossil fuel consumption and population density in India, Pakistan and Bangladesh: a panel investigation. International Journal of Finance & Economics, 27(1), 18-31, https://doi.org/10.1002/ijfe.2134
  86. Qayyum, M., Yu, Y., Nizamani, M. M., Raza, S., Ali, M., & Li, S. (2022). Financial instability and CO2 emissions in India: evidence from ARDL bound testing approach. Energy & Environment, https://doi.org/10.1177/0958305X211065019
  87. Voumik, L. C., & Ridwan, M. (2023). Impact of FDI, industrialization, and education on the environment in Argentina: ARDL approach. Heliyon,e12872, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2023.e12872
  88. Vyas, M. (2020). Impact of lockdown on labour in India. The Indian Journal of Labour Economics, 63(1), 73-77, https://doi.org/10.1007/s41027-020-00259-w
  89. Wang, H., Asif Amjad, M., Arshed, N., Mohamed, A., Ali, S., Haider Jafri, M. A., & Khan, Y. A. (2022). Fossil energy demand and economic development in BRICS countries. Frontiers in Energy Research, 10, 335, https://doi.org/10.3389/fenrg.2022.842793
  90. Wang, Q., & Song, X. (2019). Indias coal footprint in the globalized world: evolution and drivers. Journal of Cleaner Production, 230, 286-301, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.05.102
  91. Wang, Q., & Song, X. (2021). Why do China and India burn 60% of the world’s coal? A decomposition analysis from a global perspective. Energy, 227,120389, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2021.120389
  92. WDI. (2023). World Development Indicators. GDP per capita. https://databank.worldbank.org/source/world-development-indicators. Accessed on 1 April 2023
  93. Wolde-Rufael, Y. (2010). Bounds test approach to cointegration and causality between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth in India. Energy Policy, 38(1), 52-58, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2009.08.053
  94. Xie, K. (2021). Reviews of clean coal conversion technology in China: Situations & challenges. Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering, 35, 62-69, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cjche.2021.04.004
  95. Yarzábal, L. A., Salazar, L. M. B., & Batista-García, R. A. (2021). Climate change, melting cryosphere and frozen pathogens: Should we worry? Environmental Sustainability, 4(3), 489-501, https://doi.org/10.1007/s42398-021-00184-8
  96. Yitzhaki, S. (2003). Gini’s mean difference: A superior measure of variability for non-normal distributions. Metron, 61(2), 285-316
  97. Yurtkuran, S. (2021). The effect of agriculture, renewable energy production, and globalization on CO2 emissions in Turkey: A bootstrap ARDL approach. Renewable Energy, 171, 1236-1245, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2021.03.009
  98. Zhang, X., Geng, Y., Shao, S., Wilson, J., Song, X., & You, W. (2020). China’s non-fossil energy development and its 2030 CO2 reduction targets: The role of urbanization. Applied Energy, 261, 114353, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2019.114353
  99. Żuk, P., & Żuk, P. (2022). National energy security or acceleration of transition? Energy policy after the war in Ukraine. Joule, 6(4), 709-712, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joule.2022.03.009

Last update:

No citation recorded.

Last update: 2024-04-12 15:01:38

No citation recorded.