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Starch – carrageenan based low-cost membrane permeability characteristic and its application for yeast microbial fuel cells

1Department of Chemistry, Diponegoro University, Jl. Prof. Sudharto, SH, Tembalang, Semarang 50275, Indonesia

2Master Program of Energy, School of Postgraduate Studies, Jl. Imam Bardjo, SH, Pleburan, Semarang 50241, Indonesia

3Department of Chemical Engineering, Institut Teknologi Indonesia, Jl. Raya Puspiptek Serpong, South Tangerang 15314, Indonesia

4 Research Center for Environmental and Clean Technology, National Research and Innovation Agency, KST BRIN Cisitu, Bandung 40135, Indonesia

5 Collaborative Researh Center for Zero Waste and Sustainability, Universitas Katolik Widya Mandala, Surabaya 60114, Indonesia

6 Center of Biomass and Renewable Energy (CBIORE), Chemical Engineering Department, Diponegoro University, Indonesia

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Received: 26 Oct 2023; Revised: 15 Jan 2024; Accepted: 17 Feb 2024; Available online: 25 Feb 2024; Published: 1 Mar 2024.
Editor(s): Rock Keey Liew
Open Access Copyright (c) 2024 The Author(s). Published by Centre of Biomass and Renewable Energy (CBIORE)
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

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Abstract

Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are an innovative method that generates sustainable electricity by exploiting the metabolic processes of microorganisms. The membrane that divides the anode and cathode chambers is an important component of MFCs. Commercially available membranes, such as Nafion, are both costly, not sustainable, and harmful to the environment. In this study, a low-cost alternative membrane for MFCs based on a starch-carrageenan blend (SCB-LCM) was synthesized. The SCB-LCM membrane was created by combining starch and carrageenan and demonstrated a high dehydration rate of 98.87 % over six hours. SEM analysis revealed a smooth surface morphology with no pores on the membrane surface. The performance of SCB-LCM membrane-based MFCs was evaluated and compared to that of other membranes, including Nafion 117 and Nafion 212. All membranes tested over 25 hours lost significant weight, with SCB-LCM losing the least. The maximum power density (MPD) of the SCB-LCM MFCs was 15.77 ± 4.34 mW/m2, indicating comparable performance to commercial membranes. Moreover, the cost-to-power ratio for MFCs employing SCB-LCM was the lowest (0.03 USD.m2/mW) when compared to other membranes, indicating that SCB-LCM might be a viable and cost-effective alternative to Nafion in MFCs. These SCB-LCM findings lay the groundwork for future research into low-cost and sustainable membrane for MFC technologies.  

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Keywords: Biomass; Bioenergy; Energy Production; Renewable Energy; Sustainable Energy

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