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Utilization of dairy waste scum oil for microwave-assisted biodiesel production over KOH-waste eggshell based calcium oxide catalyst

1Centre for Biofuel and Biochemical Research (CBBR), Institute of Sustainable Living (ISB), Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Seri Iskandar, 32610, Malaysia

2Chemical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 32610 Seri Iskandar, Perak, Malaysia

Received: 4 Dec 2023; Revised: 18 Jan 2024; Accepted: 20 Feb 2024; Available online: 22 Feb 2024; Published: 1 Mar 2024.
Editor(s): Rock Keey Liew
Open Access Copyright (c) 2024 The Author(s). Published by Centre of Biomass and Renewable Energy (CBIORE)
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

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Abstract
The sustainability can be maintained by utilizing the available waste as feedstock and catalyst such as dairy and eggshell waste respectively for biodiesel production. In this study, the calcium oxide (CaO) synthesized from calcined eggshell was doped with potassium hydroxide (KOH-ECaO) via wet impregnation method and analyzed the catalyst performance on biodiesel production from dairy waste scum oil (DWSO) via microwave assisted transesterification. The catalyst was characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy equipped with Energy Dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) contents were deduced by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The KOH-ECaO catalyst showed a good potential based on the characterizations analysis such as high pore size (25.5 nm) which supported by SEM pattern analysis. The highest biodiesel production (75%) was obtained at optimum reaction parameters conditions. The optimized conditions were discovered to be 3 wt.% of catalyst, 16:1 of methanol to oil molar ratio, reaction temperature of 65°C and 15 minutes of reaction time as microwave provided faster reaction for the transesterification. These innovative results showed that KOH-ECaO could enhance the biodiesel production from DWSO which encouraged the usage of waste for wealth product.
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Keywords: calcium oxide; dairy waste scum oil; eggshell; microwave assisted transesterification; potassium hydroxide
Funding: Center for Biofuel and Biochemical Research (CBBR) Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS; Higher Institution Centre of Excellence (HiCoE) Malaysia grant under contract 015MA0-104; Yayasan Universiti Teknologi Petronas (YUTP-FRG) grant under contract 015LC0-331; International Collaborative R under contract

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