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Multi-criteria optimal sizing and analysis of PV/wind/fuel cell/battery/diesel generator for rural electrification: A case study in Chad

1Department of Physics, University of Nairobi, PO Box 30197-00100, Nairobi, Kenya

2Distributed Energy Team, Jeju Global Research Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research, (63357) 200, Haemajihaean-ro, Gujwa-eup, Jeju-si, Jeju, South Korea

3School of Engineering, University of Eldoret, PO Box 1125-30100, Eldoret, Kenya

Received: 27 Feb 2024; Revised: 6 Apr 2024; Accepted: 15 Apr 2024; Available online: 18 Apr 2024; Published: 1 May 2024.
Editor(s): H Hadiyanto
Open Access Copyright (c) 2024 The Author(s). Published by Centre of Biomass and Renewable Energy (CBIORE)
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

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Access to sustainable, clean, affordable, and reliable electricity is crucial for social and economic development, yet Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) struggles significantly in this context. In CHAD, only 11.3% of the population is able to access electricity, making it one of the least electrified countries in SSA with the lowest clean energy access. In rural areas, electricity access falls to just 1.3%. This research applies and executes a Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization (MOPSO) algorithm using MATLAB R2023b to assess the techno-economic, environmental, and social impacts of a hybrid system based on optimal PV/Wind/Battery/Fuel Cell (FC)/Diesel generator (DG) sizing for rural electrification in CHAD. The proposed system's self-sufficiency index (SSSI) and the Annualized System Cost (ASC) were chosen as objective functions to guarantee the economic feasibility of the system, higher self-sufficiency, and lower dependence on external energy sources (DG). The simulation results show that the optimal size of the proposed system supplies the load demand by 100% of the renewable energy sources (RES)  fraction, and the optimal capacities of the main components to supply the load demand are: Solar Power (493 KW), Wind Turbine (166 KW), Battery Energy Charge/Discharge (229180 kWh /221300 kWh), Hydrogen tank storage energy (83 874 kWh), Electrolyzer size (202 KW), Fuel cell size (144 KW). The evelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of 0.2982 $/kWh, which is 51.12% lower than the national unit production costs of electricity in rural areas of CHAD (0.61 $/kWh). This LCOE is also the lowest compared to previous works done using HOMER Pro for the country of CHAD. The results also give a levelized cost of hydrogen (LCOH) of 3.8563 US $/kg, lower than for all studies found in the literature for the country of Chad. The proposed system's yearly avoided greenhouse gas (GHG) emission is 374 640 kg. The proposed system will create five (5) new jobs (JCO) and improve the Human Development Index (HDI) of the study area by 17.66% (the obtained HDI is 0.4683, and the CHAD HDI is 0.398) with an SSSI of 51.14%. This study provides a better practical energy design tool in decision-making for designers, companies, investors, policymakers, and the Chadian government when implementing this type of system in particular rural locations.

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Keywords: Avoided greenhouse gas (GHG); social assessment; Hybrid energy system; Optimal sizing; rural electrification; Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm; zero-carbon electricity.

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