skip to main content

Solar adsorption cooling system operating by activated–carbon–ethanol bed

Department of Energy, Engineering College, University of Baghdad, Iraq

Received: 9 Feb 2024; Revised: 20 Mar 2024; Accepted: 28 Mar 2024; Available online: 2 Apr 2024; Published: 1 May 2024.
Editor(s): H Hadiyanto
Open Access Copyright (c) 2024 The Author(s). Published by Centre of Biomass and Renewable Energy (CBIORE)
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Citation Format:

One efficient way to convert small thermally energized into effective cooling is through adsorption cooling technology, which increases energy efficiency and reduces environmental pollution.  This study's primary goal is to hypothetically examine the thermal coefficient of performing the solar adsorptive refrigerator machine operated with an activating carbon/Ethanol operating dual. The impact of different operating situations and design factors on the machine's performance is inspected and evaluated. The present double-bed solar energy adsorptive-cooler unit is modeled by thermodynamic methodology.  Then, it was analyzed to evaluate its effectiveness work under Baghdad climate conditions. For the current study, the two-bed solar adsorption cooling unit with 0.5 kW capacity input heat 11893 that operates at 5 °C for the evaporator and 45 °C for the condenser is presented. The Engineering-Equation-Solver (EES) simulation program was created and used to solve the modeling equations that predict the optimal cycle performance and evaluate the optimum reasonable values of the operation parameters of the proposed system. The pressure range for the refrigeration cycle is 2.408 kPa for the evaporation state and 23.14 kPa for the condensation state. The findings demonstrate that an optimum coefficient of performance (COP) is 0.702 at 95 °C, a 20% performance increase, which generates 39.4 of cooling water. It produced 1 kg of chilled water for 2.463 kg of activated carbon at a temperature of 5°C. The improved solar-powered adsorption systems and refrigeration technologies are appealing substitutes that can satisfy energy demands in addition to meeting needs for cooling, ice production, air conditioning, and refrigeration preservation and safeguarding of the environment with Iraq's climate conditions.

Fulltext View|Download
Keywords: solar refrigerator; adsorption; equilibrium uptake; cooling; specific cooling power; performance

Article Metrics:

  1. Abass, A. Z., & Pavlyuchenko, D. (2019). Turning Iraq into a Country of Energy Exporters through the Exploitation of Solar Energy and West Desert Land. E3S Web of Conferences, 114, 05009.
  2. Abdulkadir, M., Kulla, D., & Pam, G. (2022, August 24). Performance Evaluation of Date-Seed Activated Carbon as Adsorbent in Adsorption Refrigeration System. Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 30(1), 24–27.
  3. Ahmed, B. M., & Alhialy, N. F. F. (2020, March 31). Experimental and Theoretical Analysis of a Mono PV Cell with Five Parameters, Simulation Model Compatible with Iraqi Climate. Association of Arab Universities Journal of Engineering Sciences, 27(1), 54–64.
  4. Ahmed, B. M., & Farman Alhialy, N. F. (2019, August 25). Optimum Efficiency of PV Panel Using Genetic Algorithms to Touch Proximate Zero Energy House (NZEH). Civil Engineering Journal, 5(8), 1832–1840.
  5. Alamoudi, H. A., & Abdel-Dayem, A. M. (2021, October 27). Design Optimization and Simulation of an Ice Plant Working By Solar Adsorption Technology. European Journal of Energy Research, 1(4), 13–22.
  6. Asif Sha, A., Baiju, V., Rehna, R., Suzuki, T., Singh, H., & Ichiyanagi, M. (2022, November). Performance Investigations of Carbon Based Consolidated Composite Adsorbents Effective for Adsorption Cooling Systems. Applied Thermal Engineering, 217, 119199.
  7. Boruta, P., Bujok, T., Mika, U., & Sztekler, K. (2021, August 3). Adsorbents, Working Pairs, and Coated Beds for Natural Refrigerants in Adsorption Chillers—State of the Art. Energies, 14(15), 4707.
  8. Bouzid, M., Bouaziz, N., Torkia, Y. B., & Lamine, A. B. (2019, June). Statistical Physics Modeling of Ethanol Adsorption onto the Phenol Resin Based Adsorbents: Stereographic, Energetic and Thermodynamic Investigations. Journal of Molecular Liquids, 283, 674–687.
  9. Bouzid, M., Sellaoui, L., Khalfaoui, M., Belmabrouk, H., & Lamine, A. B. (2016, February). Adsorption of Ethanol onto Activated Carbon: Modeling and Consequent Interpretations Based On Statistical Physics Treatment. Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and Its Applications, 444, 853–869.
  10. Brancato, V., Frazzica, A., Sapienza, A., Gordeeva, L., & Freni, A. (2015, May). Ethanol adsorption onto carbonaceous and composite adsorbents for adsorptive cooling system. Energy, 84, 177–185.
  11. Brancato, V., Gordeeva, L., Sapienza, A., Freni, A., & Frazzica, A. (2016, July). Dynamics Study of Ethanol Adsorption on Microporous Activated Carbon for Adsorptive Cooling Applications. Applied Thermal Engineering, 105, 28–38.
  12. Burchell, T. (1999, July 22). Carbon Materials for Advanced Technologies. Elsevier
  13. Chauhan, P., Baiju, V., Asif Sha, A., & Tyagi, S. (2024, February). Adsorption of Ethanol onto Novel and Indigenous Green Adsorbents: Synthesis, Characterization, and Applications. Journal of Cleaner Production, 442, 140978.
  14. Chen, Z., Wang, X., Islamoglu, T., & Farha, O. K. (2019, April 26). Green Synthesis of a Functionalized Zirconium-Based Metal–Organic Framework for Water and Ethanol Adsorption. Inorganics, 7(5), 56.
  15. Dakkama, H., Elsayed, A., Al-Dadah, R., Mahmoud, S., & Youssef, P. (2015). Investigation of Cascading Adsorption Refrigeration System with Integrated Evaporator-Condenser Heat Exchanger Using Different Working Pairs. Energy Procedia, 75, 1496–1501.
  16. Denzinger, C., Berkemeier, G., Winter, O., Worsham, M., Labrador, C., Willard, K., Altaher, A., Schuleter, J., Ciric, A., & Choi, J. K. (2021, January). Toward Sustainable Refrigeration Systems: Life Cycle Assessment of a Bench-Scale Solar-Thermal Adsorption Refrigerator. International Journal of Refrigeration, 121, 105–113.
  17. El-Sharkawy, I. I., Uddin, K., Miyazaki, T., Baran Saha, B., Koyama, S., Kil, H. S., Yoon, S. H., & Miyawaki, J. (2015, February). Adsorption of Ethanol onto Phenol Resin Based Adsorbents for Developing Next Generation Cooling Systems. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 81, 171–178.
  18. El-Sharkawy, I. I., Uddin, K., Miyazaki, T., Saha, B. B., Koyama, S., Miyawaki, J., & Yoon, S. H. (2014). Adsorption of Ethanol onto Parent and Surface Treated Activated Carbon Powders. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 73, 445–455.
  19. El-Sharkawy, I., Kuwahara, K., Saha, B., Koyama, S., & Ng, K. (2006, June). Experimental Investigation of Activated Carbon Fibers/Ethanol Pairs for Adsorption Cooling System Application. Applied Thermal Engineering, 26(8–9), 859–865.
  20. El-Sharkawy, I., Saha, B., Koyama, S., He, J., Ng, K., & Yap, C. (2008, December). Experimental Investigation on Activated Carbon–Ethanol Pair for Solar Powered Adsorption Cooling Applications. International Journal of Refrigeration, 31(8), 1407–1413.
  21. Elsheniti, M. B., Elsamni, O. A., Al-Dadah, R. K., Mahmoud, S., Elsayed, E., & Saleh, K. (2018, June 13). Adsorption Refrigeration Technologies. Sustainable Air Conditioning Systems.
  22. Farman, N. F., Redha, Z. A. A., & Mahdi, S. A. (2017, December). Optimization of the Efficiency of Continuous Solar Adsorption Refrigeration System with Genetic Algorithm. 2017 2nd International Conference on the Applications of Information Technology in Developing Renewable Energy Processes & Systems (IT-DREPS).
  23. Frazzica, A., Palomba, V., Dawoud, B., Gullì, G., Brancato, V., Sapienza, A., Vasta, S., Freni, A., Costa, F., & Restuccia, G. (2016, July). Design, Realization, and Testing of an Adsorption Refrigerator Based on Activated Carbon/Ethanol Working Pair. Applied Energy, 174, 15–24.
  24. Gautam, Chaudhary, A., Singh, A., Singh, P. K., & Sahoo, S. (2024, January 24). Experimental Investigation and Thermodynamic Analysis of Coconut-Shell-Derived Activated Carbon for CO2-Based Advanced Adsorption Cooling Systems. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 63(5), 2395–2415.
  25. H Al-Maamory, N., & Fadel Farman, N. (2023, July 1). Performance of Solar Adsorption Cooling System Using Methanol and Activated Carbon as a Working Pair. Journal of Engineering, 29(7), 71–85.
  26. Hadj Ammar, M., Benhaoua, B., & Bouras, F. (2017, February). Thermodynamic Analysis and Performance of an Adsorption Refrigeration System Driven By Solar Collector. Applied Thermal Engineering, 112, 1289–1296.
  27. Hasan Rupam, T., Ahmed Rocky, K., Palash, M. L., & Baran Saha, B. (2023, January). Ethanol Adsorption onto Various Metal-Organic Frameworks for Cooling Applications. Thermal Science and Engineering Progress, 37, 101602.
  28. Kalawa, W., Sztekler, K., Mlonka-Mędrala, A., Radomska, E., Nowak, W., Mika, U., Bujok, T., & Boruta, P. (2023, August 5). Simulation Analysis of Mechanical Fluidized Bed in Adsorption Chillers. Energies, 16(15), 5817.
  29. Khanam, M., Jribi, S., Miyazaki, T., Saha, B., & Koyama, S. (2018, June 8). Numerical Investigation of Small-Scale Adsorption Cooling System Performance Employing Activated Carbon-Ethanol Pair. Energies, 11(6), 1499.
  30. Lache, M., Kappelhoff, C., Seiler, J., & Bardow, A. (2023, January 18). Water and Ethanol as Refrigerant Mixture Enabling Adsorption Cooling Below 0 °C. Energy Technology, 11(3).
  31. Li, M., Huang, H., Wang, R., Wang, L., Cai, W., & Yang, W. (2004, December). Experimental Study on Adsorbent of Activated Carbon with Refrigerant of Methanol and Ethanol for Solar Ice Maker. Renewable Energy, 29(15), 2235–2244.
  32. Miyazaki, T., El-Sharkawy, I I., Saha, B., and Koyama, S, (2014). Optimized Performance of one-Bed Adsorption Cooling System. International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference. Paper 1480.
  33. Mustafa, R., Mohd Radzi, M. A. B., Hizam, H. B., & Che Soh, A. (2024). An innovative air-cooling system for efficiency improvement of retrofitted rooftop photovoltaic module using cross-flow fan. International Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 13(2), 223-234.
  34. Pal, A., El-Sharkawy, I. I., Saha, B. B., Jribi, S., Miyazaki, T., & Koyama, S. (2016, October). Experimental Investigation of CO2 Adsorption onto a Carbon-Based Consolidated Composite Adsorbent for Adsorption Cooling Application. Applied Thermal Engineering, 109, 304–311.
  35. Patel, J., & Maiti, S. (2023). Experimental Investigation of a Small-Scale Evacuated Tube-Based Solar Adsorption Chiller with Emphasis on Improving the Cycle Time. Energy Conversion and Management, 292, 117421.
  36. Patrick & Khalidah. (n.d.). Iraq Has an Opportunity to Become a Solar Leader. (2010)
  37. Qasem, N. A., & El-Shaarawi, M. A. (2015, August). Thermal Analysis and Modelling Study of an Activated Carbon Solar Adsorption Icemaker: Dhahran case study. Energy Conversion and Management, 100, 310–323.
  38. Rezk, A., Gediz Ilis, G., & Demir, H. (2022, September). Experimental Study on Silica Gel/Ethanol Adsorption Characteristics for Low-Grade Thermal Driven Adsorption Refrigeration Systems. Thermal Science and Engineering Progress, 34, 101429.
  39. Rupa, M. J., Pal, A., & Saha, B. B. (2020, February). Activated Carbon-Graphene Nanoplatelets Based Green-Cooling System: Adsorption Kinetics, Heat of Adsorption, And Thermodynamic Performance. Energy, 193, 116774.
  40. Saadoon, T. N., Farman, N. F., & Mustafa, F. I. (2020, October 29). Thermal Efficiency Optimization of the Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heater System by Using Mirror Flat Reflector. 2020 11th International Renewable Energy Congress (IREC).
  41. Saha, B., El-Sharkawy, I., Chakraborty, A., Koyama, S., & Ng, K. C. (2006). Study on Acf/Ethanol Based Two-Stage Adsorption Cooling Cycle. Multiphase.
  42. Saha, B. B., El-Sharkawy, I. I., Shahzad, M. W., Thu, K., Ang, L., & Ng, K. C. (2016, March). Fundamental And Application Aspects Of Adsorption Cooling And Desalination. Applied Thermal Engineering, 97, 68–76.
  43. Saha, B., El-Sharkawy, I., Chakraborty, A., & Koyama, S. (2007, January). Study on an Activated Carbon Fiber–Ethanol Adsorption Chiller: Part I – System Description And Modelling. International Journal of Refrigeration, 30(1), 86–95.
  44. Saha, B., El-Sharkawy, I., Chakraborty, A., & Koyama, S. (2007, January). Study an Activated Carbon Fiber–Ethanol Adsorption Chiller: Part II – Performance Evaluation. International Journal of Refrigeration, 30(1), 96–102.
  45. Sghaier, W., Ben Torkia, Y., Bouzid, M., & Ben Lamine, A. (2022, September). Thermodynamic Analysis Of Cooling Cycles Based on Statistical Physics Modeling Of Ethanol Adsorption Isotherms. International Journal of Refrigeration, 141, 119–131.
  46. Sha, A. A., & Baiju, V. (2021, March). Thermodynamic Analysis and Performance Evaluation of Activated Carbon-Ethanol Two-Bed Solar Adsorption Cooling System. International Journal of Refrigeration, 123, 81–90.
  47. Shabir, F., Sultan, M., Niaz, Y., Usman, M., Ibrahim, S. M., Feng, Y., Naik, B. K., Nasir, A., & Ali, I. (2020, August 28). Steady-State Investigation of Carbon-Based Adsorbent–Adsorbate Pairs for Heat Transformation Application. Sustainability, 12(17), 7040.
  48. Sowunmi, A. R., Folayan, C. O., Anafi, F. O., Ajayi, O., Omisanya, N. O., Edet, A. A., Oyedeji, A. N., & Salami, K. A. (2023, March 31). Simulation of the Performance of Continuous Solar-Powered Adsorption Refrigeration System for Optimal Use in Zaria, Nigeria. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science.
  49. Tarish, A. L., Khalifa, A. H. N., & Hamad, A. J. (2020, November 1). Methods of Improving the Performance of Adsorption Thermophysical Battery Based on the Operating Conditions and Structure: A Review. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 928(2), 022040.
  50. Tiansuwan and Hirunlabh, J. (1998). Mathematical Model of an Activated Carbon-Ethanol Refrigerator. Thammasat Int.J.Sc.Tec, (1998). 3(1)
  51. Uddin, K., El-Sharkawy, I. I., Miyazaki, T., Saha, B. B., & Koyama, S. (2014, March). Thermodynamic Analysis of Adsorption Cooling Cycle Using Ethanol-Surface Treated Maxsorb Ⅲ Pairs. Evergreen, 1(1), 25–31.
  52. Uddin, K., El-Sharkawy, I.I., Miyazaki, T., Saha, B., & Koyama, S. (2014). Thermodynamic Analysis of Adsorption Refrigeration Cycles Using Parent and Surface Treated Maxsorb III/Ethanol Pairs. International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference. Paper 1493.
  53. Uddin, K., Miyazaki, T., Koyama, S., & Saha, B. B. (2013, December). Performance Investigation of Adsorption–Compression Hybrid Refrigeration Systems. International Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration, 21(04), 1350024.
  54. Umair, M., Akisawa, A., & Ueda, Y. (2014, March 11). Performance Evaluation of a Solar Adsorption Refrigeration System with a Wing Type Compound Parabolic Concentrator. Energies, 7(3), 1448–1466.

Last update:

No citation recorded.

Last update: 2024-05-18 06:00:35

No citation recorded.